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 Post subject: Sanitation: A General Overview
PostPosted: Mon Dec 04, 2006 6:45 am 
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Sanitation and Hygiene In An Emergency

Department of Homeland Security
http://www.nationalterroralert.com/sanitationhygiene/

The lack of sanitation facilities following major disaster can quickly create secondary problems unless basic guidelines are followed.

If the water lines are damaged or if damage is suspected, do not flush the toilet. Avoid digging holes in the ground and using these. Untreated raw sewage can pollute fresh ground water supplies. It also attracts flies and promotes the spread of diseases.
~Store a large supply of heavy-duty plastic bags, twist ties, disinfectant, and toilet paper

~A good disinfectant that is easy to use is a solution of 1 part liquid bleach to 10 parts water. Dry bleach is caustic and not safe for this type of use.

~If the toilet is NOT able to be flushed, it can still be used. This is less stressful for most people than using some other container. Remove all the bowl water. Line it with a heavy-duty plastic bag. When finished, add a small amount of deodorant or disinfectant, securely tie the bag, and dispose of it in a large trash can with a tight fitting lid. This large trash can should also be lined with a sturdy trash bag. Eventually, the city will provide a means to dispose of these bags.

~Portable camp toilets, small trash cans or sturdy buckets lined with heavy-duty plastic bags can also be used. Those with tight fitting lids are best.
"Tips for Staying Clean in an Emergency Situation

As much as possible, continue regular hygiene habits such as brushing your teeth, washing your face, combing your hair and even washing your body with a wet washcloth. This will help prevent the spread of disease and irritation as well as help relieve stress.

~Keep your fingers out of your mouth. Avoid handling food with your hands
~Purify your drinking water. Use chlorine bleach, purification tablets (check bottle for expiration dates), or by boiling for 10 minutes.

~Sterilize your eating utensils by heat. You can also rinse dishes in purified water that has additional chlorine bleach added to it. (Use 2 1/2 teaspoons bleach per gallon of purified water.)

~Keep your clothing as clean and dry as possible, especially under-clothing and socks.
If, during an emergency situation, you develop vomiting or diarrhea, rest and stop eating solid foods until the symptoms ease up. Take fluids, particularly water, in small amounts at frequent intervals. As soon as can be tolerated, resume eating semi-solid foods. Normal salt intake should be maintained.

Keep Basic Hygiene Supplies Handy
These basic supplies should be kept in your Safe Room, Go Pack and Car.
~Cornstarch
~Fingernail clippers and files
~Sanitary napkins
~Insect repellent
~Toilet paper
~Moistened Towelettes or Baby Wipes
~A few bath towels
~Small hand-held mirror
~Liquid all-purpose soap
~Vaseline Petroleum Jelly
~Liquid Chlorine Bleach
~Ammonia (disinfecting aid)

Emergency Sewage Disposal
Water flush toilets cannot be used when water service is interrupted. The water remaining in the fixture is not sufficient to flush the wastes down the sewer. Clogging may result and your living conditions then become just that much more uncomfortable.


Even if water is available, local authorities may ask you not to use flush toilets, wash basins, and other fixtures connected with soil pipes. The sewer mains may be broken or clogged, which would make it impossible to carry off such waste; or water may be needed for fire fighting or other emergencies. It is necessary for every family to know emergency methods of waste disposal in case such conditions arise.

Failure to properly dispose of human wastes can lead to epidemics of such diseases as typhoid, dysentery, and diarrhea. At the same time, sewage must be disposed of in ways that will prevent contamination of water supplies used for drinking, cooking, bathing, laundering, and other domestic purposes. Here are simple steps that any family can take to prevent such dangers and discomforts.

Temporary Toilet Provisions
Right after an emergency, or during one, you will probably not have the time and tools to prepare a complex emergency sanitation system. If there is a delay of several days in restoring sewage service to your neighborhood, you may find that disposal is a big problem. Your first task is to make some temporary toilet provision for your family, especially the children. Almost any covered metal or plastic container will do. You can use a covered pail, a 5-gallon bucket, or a small kitchen garbage container with a foot operated cover for an emergency toilet. Anything that has a cover and will hold the contents until you can dispose of them will serve for sanitary purposes at first.

Emergency Sewage Storage
Keep on the premises at least one extra 10-gallon garbage can or other waterproof container with a tight fitting cover. This should be lined with paper and/or a plastic bag. And the lid should be fastened to the can to prevent its loss. Such a can may be used for the emergency storage of body wastes until the public sewage system can be put back into action, or until other arrangements can be made. Empty your emergency toilet into this storage can as often as necessary. A small amount of household disinfectant should be added after each use. If you live in an apartment, you may not have a large garbage can or room to keep one. In that case, two smaller covered pails or other containers will do just as well.

Solutions for Apartment Dwellers
Persons in city apartments, office buildings, or homes without yards should keep a supply of waterproof paper containers on hand for emergency waste disposal. Where flush toilets cannot be used and open ground is not available for the construction of privies, such disposable containers offer a practical method of emergency waste collection and disposal. Building managers should plan for the collection of such containers and for their final disposal. Before collection, the used containers may be stored in tightly covered garbage cans or other water tight containers fitted with lids. Homemade soil bags for this purpose can be prepared very easily by putting one large grocery bag inside another, and a layer of shredded newspaper or other absorbent material between. You should have sufficient grocery bags on hand for possible emergencies. A supply of old newspapers will come in handy for other sanitary uses also, such as wrapping garbage and lining larger containers.

Controlling Odors and Insects
Insecticides and deodorants should be used when necessary to control odors and insects breeding in containers that cannot be emptied immediately. At least 2 pints of household bleach solution should be kept on hand for disinfecting purposes.

Other Supplies
Keep on hand an extra supply of toilet tissue, plus a supply of sanitary napkins. If there is illness in the house that requires rubber sheeting or other special sanitary equipment, make sure that adequate supplies are available. At least a week’s accumulation of daily newspapers will come in handy for insulating bedding from floors, and lining clothes against cold, as well as for the sanitary uses already mentioned.

Babies
If you have a baby in your home, you may find diaper laundering a problem under emergency conditions. It is best to keep an ample supply of disposable diapers on hand for emergency use. Or, any moisture resistant material can be cut and folded to diaper size and lined with absorbent material.


Last edited by Readymom on Thu Dec 28, 2006 4:17 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Interruption of Trash Collection: A Fluwikie Discussion
PostPosted: Mon Dec 25, 2006 11:17 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
Posts: 2446
Great Discussion on Sanitation can be found on FluWiki
Go To: http://www.fluwiki.info/pmwiki.php?n=Co ... ansmission

An interruption of trash collection over an extended time may be an issue for communities because of many different species of animals. Animals, both wild and domestic, can spread trash through neighborhoods by foraging activities. Animals (and also insects) are, of course, potential disease vectors (carriers of diseases), including viruses.


The presence of these animals and insects during a pandemic poses many challenges. The season in which a Pandemic might hit a given location will play a large role in the degree to which animals and insects play a role in adversely impacting the health and comfort of a street, neighborhood or city. Before we discuss these impacts, it may help to have an overview of animals and insects that live on or near places where trash accumulates.

Edited to update link


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 Post subject: Re: How to Build a Temporary Privacy,Shower or Potty Shelter
PostPosted: Tue Mar 09, 2010 7:21 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
Posts: 2446
Personal Waste Disposal

Image

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
Field Medical Training Battalion
Camp Lejeune

Supervise Field Waste Disposal
http://www.operationalmedicine.org/Text ... T_1603.htm

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Given the requirement in a tactical environment, necessary equipment and supplies, and the references, supervise field waste disposal, to reduce the incidence of disease per the reference. (FMST-FP-1603)

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES


1. Without the aid of references, given a description or title, identify the types of field waste, per the student handout. (FMST-FP-1603a)

2. Without the aid of references, given a description or list, identify the preferred method of disposal for each type of field waste, per the student handout. (FMST-FP-1603b)

3. Without the aid of references, given a list, identify the uses of field sanitation devices per number of personnel, per the student handout. (FMST-FP-1603c) --- continued at link, above ----


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 Post subject: Re: Sanitation: A General Overview
PostPosted: Wed May 12, 2010 3:54 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
Posts: 2446
:arrow: Image Original post by ItsADisaster over at: American Preppers Network:

Imagehttp://americanpreppersnetwork.net/viewtopic.php?f=172&t=2324

Sanitation Tips

In disaster situations, plumbing may not be usable due to broken sewer or water lines, flooding, or freezing of the system. To avoid the spread of disease, it is critical that human waste be handled in a sanitary manner!

Did you know…
…one gram (0.035 oz) of human feces can contain 10 million viruses, 1 million bacteria, 1,000 parasite cysts, and 100 parasite eggs!?

If toilet okay but lines are not…
If water or sewer lines are damaged but toilet is still intact, you should line the toilet bowl with a plastic bag to collect waste… but DO NOT flush the toilet!! After use, add a small amount of disinfectant to bag, remove and seal bag (with a twist tie if reusing), and place bag in a tightly covered container away from people to reduce smell.

If toilet is unusable…
If toilet is destroyed, a plastic bag in a bucket may be substituted. (Some companies make plastic buckets with a seat and/or snap-on lid.) You could also use the toilet seat from a commode and lay it on top of a bucket for a more comfortable experience. (Tip from Whisper: separate lid from seat and set aside so you can lay seat on it when changing out bag.) After use, add a small amount of disinfectant to the bag, and seal or cover bucket.

Disinfectants - easy and effective for home use in Sanitation of Human Waste.

Chlorine Bleach - If water is available, a solution of 1 part liquid household bleach to 10 parts water is best. DO NOT use dry bleach since it can burn you, corrode or dissolve things so not safe for this kind of use.

Calcium hypochlorite - (e.g. HTH, etc.) Available in swimming pool supply or hardware stores and several large discount stores. It can be used in solution by mixing, then storing. Follow directions on the package.

Portable toilet chemicals - These come in both liquid and dry formulas and are available at recreational vehicle (RV) supply stores. Use according to package directions. These chemicals are designed especially for toilets that are not connected to sewer lines.

Powdered, chlorinated lime - Available at some building supply stores. It can be used dry and be sure to get chlorinated lime - not quick lime.

Some other alternatives are kitty litter, sawdust, etc. There are also several types of camping toilets and portable toilets that range from fairly low dollars to hundreds of dollars.

Make sure toilet is near the air-exhaust end of the shelter and keep it tightly covered when not in use. Cover with a plastic bag too to keep bugs out and help reduce smell a bit. And consider hanging a sheet or blanket in toilet area for some privacy, if possible.

Also (if possible) consider digging a waste-disposal pit about 3 feet downwind from shelter if hunkered down for weeks. (Note, if sheltering during a nuclear event, esp if fallout surrounding shelter, do NOT expose yourself to lethal radiation by digging holes to bury waste. Just pile bags several feet away from shelter and decontaminate yourself before reentering shelter.)

Puking will also be an issue. Anxiety, a change in diet, and the sight and smell of puke and poop may make others throw up. (And if a nuke event, radiation sickness can cause puking and diarrhea.) Plastic bags, placed throughout a shelter, are the best means to catch puke and keep it off the floor. Buckets, pots, or a newspaper folded into a cone also work.

Germs and diseases can create major problems and illness in confined quarters so try to reduce the spread of germs and infectious diseases

- Wash hands often using soap and water or use hand sanitizer (with at least 60% alcohol in it) to reduce the spread of germs. But keep in mind sanitizers don't work against some bugs so it's best to wash up, if possible.
- Try to avoid exposure to others' bodily fluids like blood, pee, poop, spittle, etc.
- Sick people should cover mouth and nose with tissue or sleeve when coughing or sneezing, wash hands often, and wear a face mask around others (if very ill).
- Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered until healed.
- Clean counters, doorknobs, fixtures, linens, etc. often with a bleach solution.
- If possible, don't share silverware, razors, towels, or bedding and wash objects with soap and hot water.

Some sanitation items for kits…

- Disinfectant for human waste (see above)
- Bottles of household chlorine bleach (regular scent)
- Personal hygiene items (toothbrushes, toothpaste or baking soda, brush, comb, deodorant, shaving cream, razors, etc.)
- Plastic garbage bags with twist ties and small plastic grocery bags
- Plastic bucket with tight lid (several would be wise)
- Soap, liquid detergent, hand sanitizer (with at least 60% alcohol), moist towelettes or sanitizing wipes, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
- Toilet paper and baby wipes
- Feminine supplies (tampons, pads, etc.)
- Diapers (infant, toddler and adult sizes if needed)
- Disposable gloves
- Wash cloths, hand and bath towels
- Small shovel

(Above extracted from our IT'S A DISASTER! book. Proceeds benefit APN.)

There are other items to consider but again, these are just some basic tips to plan for dealing with human waste and cooties during shelter-in-place situations. -snip-
======
MORE
=====
Added:
I'm a bonehead .. forgot to post some poop & puke related first aid items to consider stashing in shelter too. Hopefully most of these are already in your kits but ... Bentonite clay, activated charcoal, antacids, anti-diarrhea meds, laxatives (doubt anyone will need these but ya never know), diatomaceous earth, MMS (for parasites, etc), a slew of vi-tees & herbs (esp immune stimulator types), etc. Also .. a few items for your bum include hydrocortisone cream / gel (cream is more um, soothing and less messy / sticky), he-mee cream / ointment, and diaper rash cream for the little ones. Sure there's more I'm forgetting...

I see something else .. paper towels!! (duh - this is why I shouldn't post things at night)


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 Post subject: Re: Sanitation: A General Overview
PostPosted: Wed Aug 28, 2013 4:20 pm 
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Joined: Tue Nov 21, 2006 2:42 pm
Posts: 2446
Sanitation-General Info

Image

Sanitation
http://www.endtimesreport.com/sanitation.html


Image By Miles Stair

In order to maintain life under normal conditions, humans must have sufficient potable water, adequate food, shelter, and proper sanitation in order to stay alive and healthy: in adverse conditions each element becomes absolutely critical. It is proper sanitation that most people of our generation have taken for granted. With water supplied to homes by certified water works, we have forgotten how to live without easily obtainable water, and how important it is to "normal living" and proper sanitation. Without proper sanitation, disease becomes rampant, food is spoiled, water transports disease, and people die.

In an emergency situation, you and your family would be --- CONTINUED at LINK, above ---


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