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 Post subject: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Thu Dec 14, 2006 3:50 pm 
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When and How to Treat Water for Storage: Filtering & Chlorinating

From Homeland Security

In an emergency, if you do not have water that you know is safe, it’s possible to purify water for drinking. Start with the cleanest water you can find and treat with one of the following methods:

* Filtering and chlorinating: You can filter water if you have a commercial or backpack filter that filters to 1 micron. These are available in sporting good stores and are recommended for use when back-packing. They are not recommended to clean large volumes of water. Filtering eliminates parasites such as giardia and cryptosporidium, but it may not eliminate all bacteria and viruses. Therefore, it’s recommended that 5-7 drops (1/8 teaspoon) of chlorine bleach* be added per gallon of filtered water (1/2 teaspoon for 5 gallons). Stir or shake the solution to mix it. Wait 30 minutes before using the water, or cap the containers and store them in a cool, dry place.

*Use liquid household bleach that contains 5.25 percent hypochlorite. Do not use bleaches with fresheners or scents as they may not be safe to consume. The above treatment methods use a two-step approach so less bleach is needed, yet giardia and cryptosporidium are destroyed through boiling or eliminated by filtering. Chlorine may not be effective against these parasites. Since adding too much chlorine to water can be harmful, it’s important to be as accurate as possible when measuring.

Last edited by Readymom on Thu Dec 14, 2006 3:54 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Water Purification: Biologically Active Sand Filter
PostPosted: Thu Dec 14, 2006 3:51 pm 
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Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual
BioSand Water Filter
Humanitarian Service
Last Revised: March 2005

For a BioSand filter to operate properly, it must be installed and commissioned correctly. Make a checklist and use it to ensure that you have everything you’ll need before you head out to install a filter. A filter maintenance guide (such as a laminated sheet) should be left with the users of each filter. This guide could be attached to the filter or placed on a wall adjacent to the filter.

Always consider the safety issues related to moving the filter. There can be injuries due to strains of the back, arms, and knees. Watch out for crushing or pinching of fingers and toes under or behind the filter. Keep in mind the size of the filter (12” x 12” x 36”) and its weight (160 Lbs - plus an additional 100 Lbs of media). It can be difficult and awkward to move this large object.

Some ways to move the filter include:• Cart – animal or human powered
• Car, truck, or boat
• Carrying slings – wide, heavy canvas straps placed over the shoulder to lift a heavy object
• Dolly – a frame or rack with small wheels, strong enough to carry the weight
• Rollers – metal or wooden, round pieces that can be used to move the filter short distances

It is important to determine a good location for the filter. Locating the filter inside the home is important not only for filter effectiveness, but also for the convenience of the user. If the users can access the filter easily, they will be more likely to use and maintain it. Once filled with media, the filter should not be moved.

The filter should be placed:
• In a protected location away from sunlight, wind, rain, animals, and children
• Preferably inside the home
• Near the food preparation or kitchen area (depending on the space and layout of the house)
• Where it can and will be used and maintained easily
• On level ground
• So that water can easily be poured in the top
Tip: You may have to add a step if the users are short, so that they don’t have to lift the bucket of unfiltered water above shoulder height.
• Where there’s adequate room for hauling and pouring pails of water into the filter, and storing the filtered water

Estimated Time: 10 minutes

Tools Needed:
    • Approximately 3 litres of washed _” gravel
    • Approximately 3 _ litres of washed _” gravel
    • Approximately 25 litres of washed sand
    • A stick (approximately 40” long, 1” x 2” is preferred)
    • Measuring tape
    • At least 2 buckets of water
1. Ensure that the drain hole (the standpipe opening at the bottom inside of the filter) is clear and unobstructed (i.e. is not covered by concrete and is not plugged by any debris.) The flow rate through the copper pipe without any media in the filter should be 1 litre / 25 seconds.
Tip: This step should have been done when the filter was removed from the mold, however, double check now before you get too far into the installation.
2. Ensure that the inside of the filter has been cleaned out (including dirt, dust, and oil from the mold).
3. Place a stick inside the filter so that it’s touching the bottom of the filter.
4. Draw a horizontal line on the stick where it meets the top edge of the filter.
5. Measure and mark a line 2” down from the first line.
6. Fill the filter half full of water.
Note: The media must always be added with water already in the filter to prevent pockets of air from being trapped within the media.
7. Add approximately 2” of underdrain (_”) gravel to the filter.
8. Level out the gravel, and use the stick to measure how much has been added. Place the bottom of the stick on the gravel. When the 2nd line on the stick lines up with the top edge of the filter, you have added enough gravel.
Note: Ensure that the gravel covers the drain hole near the bottom of the filter.
9. Measure and mark a line 2” down from the second line.
10. Add approximately 2” of support layer (_”) gravel to the filter.
11. Level out the gravel, and use the stick to measure how much has been added. Again, place the bottom of the stick on the gravel. When the 3rd line on the stick lines up with the top edge of the filter, you have added enough gravel.
12. Quickly pour approximately 20 litres of washed sand to the filter (ensuring that there is always water above the surface of the sand).
Note: A random distribution of different sand grain sizes is critical to the proper operation of the filter. Adding the sand quickly maintains the random distribution by not allowing the different sizes of grains to settle into layers.
13. Continue adding smaller quantities of sand until water starts to pour out of the spout. (Again, make sure that there is always water above the surface of the sand. Add water if necessary.)
14. When the water stops pouring out of the spout, the water level is equalized.
Note: The water level in the filter is determined by the spout. Due to a siphoning effect, the water will stop coming out of the filter when the water is at the same level as the bottom of the spout.
15. Smooth out the sand and then measure the depth of the water above the sand bed.
16. If the water depth is less than 2”: remove sand until the depth is 2” (with the sand surface level and the water level equalized).
17. If the water depth is more than 2”: repeat steps 13 to 17 until the water depth is 2”.
18. Smooth out the surface of the sand so that it’s as level as possible.

Estimated Time: 1 hour

Tools Needed:
    • Diffuser
    • 40 – 80 litres of water
1. Place the diffuser plate on the ledge inside the filter. Ensure that it fits snugly.
Note: The diffuser must not be touching the surface of the water at its resting level. That would greatly reduce the amount of oxygen in the standing water layer, affecting the survival of the schmutzdecke.
2. Place a receiving container under the spout. The water that it captures can be reused.
3. Pour the cleanest available water into the filter (turbidity < 30 NTU).
4. Observe the water coming out of the spout.
5. Continue adding water to the filter until the water coming out of the spout is clear. This may take 40-80 litres (10-20 Gallons)
Note: If the outlet water doesn’t run clear after 100 litres (25 Gallons), the gravel or sand was too dirty to start with. It is probably easiest to take the media out, wash it in pails, and then place it back in the filter.

Estimated Time: 5 minutes

Tools Needed:
    • Measuring container with 1 litre mark
    • Stopwatch
    • Bucket

1. Fill the filter to the top with water.
2. Place your measuring container under the spout to collect the outlet water.
3. Measure the time it takes to fill the container to the 1 litre mark. It should take between 50 – 80 seconds.
4. If it takes longer than 80 seconds, the flow rate is too slow.
• The filter will still work, but it may clog faster and more often, requiring more maintenance
• If it takes too long to get a pail of water, the user may not like the filter and may use untreated water
• The flow rate can be improved by “swirling” the top layer of the sand and then scooping out the dirty water
• If a few “swirl & dumps” do not improve the flow rate substantially, the sand is either too fine or too dirty – you will have to rewash the sand
5. If it takes less than 50 seconds to fill the measuring container to 1 litre, the flow rate is too fast.
• The filter may not function effectively
• The media should be replaced with finer media (less washed)
• A less preferable option is to run a considerable amount of water through the filter until the flow rate decreases (due to the capture of finer particles and faster growth of the biolayer)
Note: The flow rate through the filter decreases as the height of the water in the influent reservoir drops. As the water level reaches the diffuser, treated water may only drip out of the filter spout. It can take 40 – 90 minutes for the 20 litres in the reservoir to completely pass through the filter.

Estimated Time: 10 minutes

Tools Needed:
    • 3’ of garden hose that just fits over the filter spout
    • 1 hose clamp (if available)
    • Funnel (can be made from the top of a soda or water bottle)
    • Bleach solution (1/2 teaspoon bleach to 2 litres of water)
Note: Do NOT pour chlorine bleach into the top of the filter![/list]

1. Place the garden hose over the filter spout.
2. Clamp the hose in place with the hose clamp.
3. Place the funnel on the other end of the garden hose.
4. Hold the funnel higher than the top of the filter, and pour 2 litres of bleach solution into the funnel.
5. Hold in place for 2 minutes.
6. Remove the garden hose and drain the bleach solution
7. Wipe the outside of the spout with a clean, bleach-soaked cloth.
8. Add 20 litres of water to the top of the filter to flush the bleach out. Instruct the user not to use this water for drinking or cooking.
9. Place the lid on the filter.


• The schmutzdecke or biolayer is the key bacteria removing component of the filter
• Without it, the filter removes some contamination through screening of the particles and microorganisms (only 30-70% removal efficiency)
• A good schmutzdecke will remove 90-99% of biological pathogens
• It may take 10 – 20 days to establish the schmutzdecke
• The water from the filter can be used during the first few weeks while the schmutzdecke is being established if a safer water source is not available, but chlorination is recommended at least during this time period
• The schmutzdecke is NOT usually visible – it is not a green slimy coating on top of the sand

Educate all of the users, including children, on how and why the filter works and on the correct operation and maintenance. Children are frequently the main users of the filter.

    • Slowly pour raw (untreated) water into the filter daily (at least 20 litres, twice per day)
    • Using the same source of water every day will improve the filter effectiveness
    • Use the best source of water (least contaminated) available – the better the raw water is, the better the treated water will be
    • Pre-filter or settle raw water if not relatively clear – less than 50 NTU
    Tip: A simple test to measure the turbidity is to fill a 2 litre clear plastic soft drink bottle with raw water. Place the bottle on top of large print such as the CAWST logo on this manual. If you can see the logo, the water probably has a turbidity of less than 50 NTU.
    • The diffuser must always be in place when pouring water into the filter – never pour water directly onto the sand layer
    • The lid should always be kept on the filter
    • Use a designated bucket for fetching raw water
    • Use a designated safe storage container to hold the treated water which has:
    _ a small opening to prevent recontamination due to dipping with cups or hands
    _ a tap or spigot
    • Place the receiving container as close to the spout as possible (i.e. place it on a block) to reduce dripping noise and prevent recontamination
    Note: The dripping noise can be irritating. The closer you place the container to the spout, the less dripping noise there is. A container with a small opening also reduces dripping noise.
    • Water must always be allowed to flow freely from the filter – never plug the spout or connect a hose to it
    Note: Plugging the spout could increase the water level in the filter, which could kill the biolayer due to lack of oxygen. Putting a hose or other device on the spout can siphon or drain the water in the filter, dropping the water level below the sand layer.
    • No food should be stored inside the filter
    Note: Some users want to store their food on the diffuser plate because it is a cool location. The water in the top of the filter is contaminated, so it will contaminate the food. Also, the food attracts insects to the filter.
    • The treated water should be chlorinated after it passes through the filter to ensure the highest quality of water and to prevent recontamination (1-5 drops/litre or up to 1 teaspoon/gallon)

Once a filter has been built, installed, and is operational, though minimal, there is some key maintenance that is required. The two primary requirements are disinfecting the spout and cleaning the biolayer when the flow rate is insufficient. Follow-up visits to ensure proper use and maintenance of the filters should be built into the hygiene education program.

DISINFECTION• The spout will become contaminated during normal use via dirty hands, animals, or insects
• Clean the the spout every day with soap and water or a chlorine cleaning solution
• Wash the receiving container every second day with soap and water or a chlorine cleaning solution
• Do NOT pour chlorine bleach into the top of the filter!
• The entire filter should be cleaned regularly (lid, diffuser, outside surfaces)

The flow rate through the filter will decrease over time as the schmutzdecke develops and fine particles are trapped in the upper layer of the sand. Users will know when the “swirl & dump” is required because the flow rate will drop to an unacceptable level. The filter is still effectively treating the water at this point; however the length of time that it takes to get a bucket of water may become too long and be inconvenient for the user. Alternately, you can measure the flow rate (as above) and if it is less than 0.3 litres/minute, “swirl & dump” maintenance is required.

    1. Remove the lid of the filter.
    2. Add 4 litres (1 gallon) of water to the top of the filter.
    3. Remove the diffuser.
    4. “Swirl” your hand around in the standing water at least 5 times – the water will become dirty. You can insert your fingers up to the first knuckle in the sand layer while “swirling” around across the entire surface area of the sand, but do not mix the surface layer deep into the filter.
    5. Scoop out some dirty water with a small container (i.e. a cup or a pop bottle cut in half).
    6. Discard the dirty water outside the house in an appropriate location (remember it is contaminated water).
    7. Repeat this “swirl and dump” technique until all the water has been dumped out of the filter.
    8. Replace the diffuser.
    9. Pour 20 litres (5 gallons) of water into the top of the filter.
    10. Measure the flow rate (as above).
    11. Repeat steps 1 through 10 until the flow rate is acceptable (close to 1 litre/minute).
    12. Wash your hands with soap and clean water - you have been handling contaminated water.

Follow up with the users on a regular basis to ensure that the filter is being used properly. The first follow up visit should be during the first two weeks of use and then every 1-2 months thereafter. During follow up visits, ensure that the filter is being operated and maintained as described above. The following general checks can be made at any time by the users, a community health worker, or a filter technician that is active in the area:

    • Check that the filter is in an appropriate location (indoors, protected from the weather, animals, and insects) and is level
    • Look for drips of water or wet spots under the filter, which indicate a leak in the concrete box
    • Check that the lid is tight fitting and clean on the inside and outside
    • Make sure the diffuser is clean and is sitting properly on the concrete lip
    • Make sure the holes in the diffuser are not plugged – periodic cleaning may be needed
    • Check that the surface of the sand is smooth and level (use a small straight object to smooth the sand ONLY if necessary)
    • Make sure the surface of the sand is 2” (5cm) below the water level.
    Note: the sand may settle over time and more will have to be added. Add (or remove) sand if the standing water depth is not 2”.

#12, 2916 – 5th Ave N.E.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2A 6K4
Telephone: (403) 243-3285
Fax: (403) 243-6199

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 Post subject: From Homeland Security
PostPosted: Thu Dec 14, 2006 3:59 pm 
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Filtration Equipment

Safe on Microbiologically Contaminated Water?
Carbon Filter No
Reverse Osmosis No
Deionization Filter No
Pitcher Filter No
Faucet Mount Filter No
Steam Distiller Yes - but requires electricity
UV Sterilizer Yes - but requires electricity
Ceramic Filter Some - but only if rated for bacteriological protection
Equipment that is safe to use on contaminated water is often slow, costly, inconvenient and/or high maintenance.

It makes the most sense to use the filtration equipment that best meets your normal daily needs and shift to water storage or alternative methods of water treatment in times of emergencies.

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 Post subject: From Princeton
PostPosted: Thu Dec 14, 2006 4:09 pm 
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OA Guide to Water Purification part of The Backpacker's Field Manual
by Rick Curtis

There are a number of devices on the market that filter out microorganisms. A water filter pumps water through a microscopic filter that is rated for a certain-size organism. The standard size rating is the micron (the period at the end of this sentence is about 600 microns). Depending on the micron rating of the filter, smaller organisms (like viruses) can pass through. Be cautious when selecting a filter. You should know what potential organisms you need to treat for. You don’t want to go to an area where a virus like hepatitis A is present in the water (a problem in some developing countries) with a filter that will handle only a larger organism like Giardia.

Common microorganisms and the filter size needed:

Organism, Examples, General Size, Filter Type, Particle Size Rating
Protozoa: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, 5 microns or larger, Water filter 1.0–4.0 microns
Bacteria: Cholera, E. coli, Salmonella 0.2–0.5 microns Microfilter 0.2–1.0 microns
Viruses: Hepatitis A, rotavirus, Norwalk virus 0.004 microns Water purifier to 0.004 microns

There are two basic types of filters (descriptions of several popular models begin on the facing page).

* Membrane Filters use thin sheets with precisely sized pores that prevent objects larger than the pore size from passing through. Pro: Relatively easy to clean. Con: Clog more quickly than depth filters. Example: PUR-Hiker.
* Depth Filters use thick porous materials such as carbon or ceramic to trap particles as water flows through the material. Pro: Can be partially cleaned by backwashing. Activated carbon filters also remove a range of organic chemicals and heavy metals. Con: Rough treatment can crack the filter, rendering it useless. Examples: MSR WaterWorks II, Katadyn.

Note: There is a difference between a water filter and a water purifier. Filters do not filter out viruses, but there are water purifiers, like the PUR Scout, that pass the water through both a filter and an iodine compound that kills any smaller organisms that have passed through the filter. These purifiers kill all microorganisms down to 0.004 microns; however, the filter should not be used by people who are allergic to iodine.

Common Practices for Using a Water Filter

* Filter the cleanest water you can find. Dirty water or water with large suspended particles will clog your filter more quickly.
* Prefilter the water either through a prefilter on the pump or strain it through a bandanna.
* If you must filter dirty water, let it stand overnight for particles to settle out.

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Thu Dec 31, 2009 5:08 pm 
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Image mltplmom @ American Preppers Network

Bio-Sand Water Filter


Bio-Sand Water Filter Description

Bio-sand filtration is a simple, cheap and effective means of removing disease-causing micro-organisms from contaminated water. It is a modification of traditional slow Filtration Technology that has been around for over 150 years. While the traditional slow-sand filter technology requires a continuous flow of water, this unique design was developed specifically for intermittent use in the households of developing countries where a continuous supply of water is usually difficult to maintain. It can be constructed out of low cost materials that are available world wide. This filter has no moving parts and is very low maintenance. Bio-sand filters have been shown to almost entirely remove harmful microbes found in water. This filter design has been introduced in more than 30 countries, by a variety of organizations and people.

So How Does it Work? . . --- Copyrighted, continued at link, above ---

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Thu Dec 31, 2009 5:18 pm 
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:?: "AyeZer": That is a cool water filter that is home made. It is interesting that I want to try that. We always buy a distilled water outside for our drinking water. If I use this Can we drink the water that is purified by this?

:arrow: I just posted the directions for the BioSand Water Filter, below. In those directions, they recommend using a few drops of bleach to complete the process. That recommendation would be the same for this filter, as well. -k

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Mon Jan 25, 2010 10:22 pm 
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Filtering through Fabric

From American Preppers Network ... lit=#p6651

:arrow: tigger2:
You can use a lot of stuff to clean up the water before you run through your filter. You could run it through a towel, cheese cloth or a pair of jeans. The cloth would act like a filter and get a lot of the big stuff out.

:arrow: Muzhik:
If you're going to use a cloth pre-filter, some things to keep in mind:

    1. The cloth should be 100% cotton with a medium-to-tight weave. Old tee shirts work really well for this.
    2. You should fold the fabric so that the water will go through 4 layers.
    3. You should use the cloth ONLY ONCE. After that the cloth needs to be washed and then dried in the sun before being used again.

This comes from some research in India, where public health officials were trying to find out why some families got sick drinking the river water and others didn't. It turns out the women who collected the water for the families that didn't get sick were running the water through folded parts of their cotton saris. The researchers found out that filtering your water through 4 layers of cotton cloth would remove up to 99% of biological contaminants. This means you can use this technique in an emergency. Just remember: the cloth needs to be dried in the sun to ensure any remaining germs, etc. get killed by the UV.[/quote]

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Mon Mar 29, 2010 4:38 pm 
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Making Water Safe to Drink: A Tutorial ... -tutorial/



A lot of confusion exists regarding the usefulness of filters to effectively disinfect water. Some filters remove only the “big stuff” such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium while others also remove viruses.

Some devices are pumps; some are bottles that require you to suck the water through a filter matrix, while others rely on gravity. Prices vary tremendously depending on the type of device you buy.

Generally filters that remove Giardia and Cryptosporidium are sufficient for 90 percent of your needs in North America.

Where viruses, such as Infectious Hepatitis, Poliomyelitis or others are a known or suspected medical threat to your safety, a filter with a finer pore size or a pump that incorporates an iodine resin to chemically kill the viruses, must be used.

Devices that remove only the larger organisms are usually referred to as “filters” while those that remove both the larger organisms and viruses are commonly known as “purifiers” but don’t rely on these terms to guide your purchase – read the fine print!

There are many bottle filters on the market and as is often the case – you get what you pay for. Inexpensive filters commonly sold at sports shows and Saturday morning flea markets will not stand up to the rigors of back country activities. Purchasing a filter from a specialty backpacking or emergency preparedness store will cost you a bit more but the filters are reliable, tough and then, when you need to replace the filter cartridge, they are available.

I particularly like the Sawyer products ( when I need a bottle filter or purifier. Sawyer also markets an in-line filter for use with hydration packs and camp gravity-feed water systems.

Where larger quantities of water are needed, and I don’t have time to use a gravity-feed system, or where lots of water is required for cooking purposes, a pump is a better option. While there are many to choose from I use a Pre-Mac “Trekker” pump sold exclusively by Emergency Response International ( These devices are small, light-weight, straightforward to use and have easily replaceable components. (Editor’s note: The author does not represent any of the companies identified in this article.)

A walk through any of the better sporting goods retail stores will quickly reveal that there are many products for sale that can be used to disinfect water. There are also other techniques used to disinfect water discussed in outdoor safety and survival literature.

My experience is limited to equipment and techniques described in this article – equipment and techniques that have served me well for over forty years in the outdoors in many parts of the world.

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Sun Mar 13, 2011 3:38 am 
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Soda Bottle Water Filter

Water Purification: Improvised Charcoal Filter ... ilter.html

(As featured in the May/June 2010 issue of Practically Seeking)

Image "Water water every where and not a drop to drink."
In a survival situation water IS life, and yet so very much of it is potentially contaminated. It is ALWAYS best to assume the ground water is not safe to drink straight from the source, and to take the appropriate actions to purify any water you obtain. The ONLY way to be absolutely sure all potential pathogens in your water have been neutralized is to boil it.

However, the use of an improvised charcoal filter is a great way to remove sediments, remove many potentially harmful contaminants, and to improve taste.
Charcoal is used in many household and back-country water filters, and in my experience with primitive filtration methods, it is also the easiest and most effective method to use in the field.
We are using a 2-liter plastic bottle for the "see through" value, but many other options are available to you, such as a sheet of tree bark rolled into a cone, a clay pot with a small hole in the bottom, a length of bamboo or cane, a glass bottle with the bottom removed (see our YouTube video)… Besides, these days, sadly, there is almost always plenty of usable refuse out there on the landscape :(

Step-by-step Instructions on How to make an Improvised Charcoal Water Filter: --- continued at link, above -- WITH PHOTOS! ---

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Sun Mar 13, 2011 3:43 am 
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Soda Bottle Water Filter


Water Purification for Human Consumption Clean water ... Where Does It Come From ? ... spsci.html (You'll have to Scroll down the page to find these instructions)

Image Objective: Students will construct a filter to demonstrate and simulate the water purification system to be used on a Mars base.

Materials Needed
(per group, class, or students)
Clear plastic soda bottle (2-liter)
Gravel (aquarium)
Aquarium charcoal (activated)
Cheesecloth (a nylon stocking can be used instead)
Muddy water
Rubber bands
Food coloring (optional)
pH water testing kit (optional)
Vinegar (optional)


Activity Procedure
Step 1: Cut the bottom off the soda bottle. Cover the mouth with several layers of cheesecloth and secure them with a rubber band. Suspend the bottle upside down with its mouth over a glass to catch the filtered water.

Step 2: Fill the bottle with charcoal to a depth of 5-8 cm.
Place 8-10 cm of sand on top of the charcoal. Place 5-8 cm of gravel on top of the sand.

Step 3: Stir the muddy water and pour it into the filter. Watch closely as the water seeps down through the three filtering layers of gravel, sand, and charcoal.

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2011 3:40 pm 
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Homemade Sand Filter for Large Amounts of Water


From the NEIGHBORHOOD EMERGENCY NOTEBOOK available at site (above)

Large Quantity Home-made filter: You can also make a wonderful and inexpensive filter yourself that will filter about 1000 gallons of water. Get a 4-6 gal. bucket and cut a hole in the side as shown below. Place a piece of cheesecloth or a piece of clean bed sheet over the top with a dip in the center. Tie a cotton rope (cotton clothesline works great) around the top of the bucket under one of the ridges to hold the material in place. Layer sand and activated charcoal in the bucket = 7 layers, 1/2” thick each. Place a bowl or pan inside the bucket under the material to catch water. Pour water into the bucket over the sand and charcoal layers. Let the water filter through to the collecting pan underneath. Empty the bowl occasionally. This device will filter about 7-8 gallons per day.
The finer the sand, the better: (Lowe’s, Home Depot); and you can get activated charcoal at Pet Smart in the aquarium section. You’ll need about a quart of charcoal and about a gallon of sand. (Charcoal = about $4-9/ quart, and sand = about $4-6 for 100 lbs! -- it’s “dirt” cheap!)

**Note: radioactive fallout can be filtered out of water. NEVER boil water with fallout in it before filtering.


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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Mon Dec 12, 2011 5:38 am 
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Coffee Filters


Use Coffee Filters to extend the life of your Water Filtration System ... on-system/

Image Water Filtration Systems have a set lifespan. After a while the filters just get worn out. You can use coffee filters to extend the life of your water filter. --- Copyrighted ... CONTINUED at LINK, above ---

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 Post subject: Re: Water Purification: Filtering
PostPosted: Wed May 17, 2017 5:21 pm 
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Water Filtering-Rainwater


100-Year-Old Trick for Filtering Rainwater

During our boiling, broiling, blistering summer of 2012 here in the Missouri Ozarks, water was a topic of conversation wherever we went. Creeks and ponds dried up (some never recovered) and the water table dropped, forcing a few neighbors to have their well pumps lowered or to even have deeper wells drilled.

Many folks shared memories of rain barrels, cisterns, hand pumps and drawing water with a well bucket as a child, usually on grandpa and grandma’s farm. Some said they’d never want to rely again on those old-time methods of getting water. But, at least they knew how it was done. --- CONTINUED at LINK, above ---

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